Sensing the South Downs

How do people who have impaired vision perceive and experience the South Downs National Park?

Last month I presented a paper at the South Downs Research Conference 2017 to explore the perception of the South Downs National Park for a case study group of walkers with who I have been conducting research over the last eight years. 

The South Downs National Park Authority published my paper synopsis, which I include here:

The South Downs is an iconic landscape, an epic beauty draped in the greens of woodland, blues of ocean and whites of chalk. It is a place of panoramas, where you are invited to stand on the green shoulders of grassy giants and gaze upon a world made small.

I am an anthropologist at the University of Sussex fascinated by the different ways that people perceive and experience this landscape. Diversity is often approached in terms of accessibility, identifying attitudes of countryside service providers and visitors and then making environmental adaptions – removing stiles or improving surfaces. My research has investigated how people who have impaired vision perceive the South Downs; that is, how they feel, sense and engage with this landscape.

My findings are not only fundamental to finding better ways to make the National Park more accessible and inclusive, but also give a deeper insight and appreciation of the South Downs’ unique qualities.

I trained as a sighted guide and spent two years regularly walking one-to-one with people who have impaired vision through changing weathers and seasons. On these walks through the South Downs I investigated how and what my companions perceived, and their sense of the landscape that emerged from this.

I became an apprentice – learning to listen to the contours of the humped hillside and the winding woodland. My companions taught me to look at the light as much as at what it revealed. They showed me how to reach out and touch the world with the whole body.

My companions described their sense of the landscapes we walked as “bitty”, “too detailed”, “sequential” and “partial”. Gaining a sense of the overall size, form and qualities of the routes and landscapes we walked was a challenge. Isolated and intimate sensory impressions were like patchworks that needed weaving together to create a sense of the wider landscape. I had been walking in Stanmer Park with one of my companions for several months when she declared “it’s just a load of space – if you can’t see it’s just a load of space with sounds and textures in it but just a load of space. I don’t know it”.

Landscapes are constantly changing. The landmark tree might be unrecognisable in the forthcoming season or cut down. The path might be indistinguishable from the ground either side of it as the earth becomes dry and worn with traipsing summer visitors.

My research demonstrates the breadth of experiences felt by people with impaired vision, but I also identified consistencies in their perceptions of the South Downs and discovered their techniques for engaging the senses. These sensory techniques included listening, feeling and guiding, but also included visual perception.

Most people who have impaired vision still have a visual appreciation of the South Downs, which invited me to also look at this landscape in different ways. I hope that my findings will help to develop more inclusive recreational activities for people who have impaired vision in the National Park.

This synopsis was published here on the South Downs National Park Authority website. You can read about the Research Conference here

Photograph of a buttercup amongst the grass with the sun coming up behind it in a blue sky.

Photograph by Huw Williams, 2017




Sensing the woodlands with a psychic medium who has impaired vision

Portrait showing [sychic medium Amanda scanning her hand over a tree

Psychic medium Amanda sensing the “energies” of a tree

I am really looking forward to presenting my paper ‘Perception, the environment and the uncanny: Sensing the woodlands with a psychic medium who has impaired vision’ on the ‘Uncanny Landscapes’ panel that I am coordinating with Professor Jon Mitchell at the  ‘Wild or domesticated – Uncanny in historical and contemporary perspectives to mind‘ conference, 20-22 September 2016, at The House of Science and Letters in Helsinki, Finland.

This promises to be a very unique, interdisciplinary conference addressing experiences and phenomena recognisable as “uncanny”, “supernatural” or “abnormal” within the context of their happening. This conference demonstrates that definitions of “normality” and “pathology” are culturally variable and approaches the ways in which science, medicine and religion play roles in distinguishing these definitions. This conference interrogates notions of the human mind to ask whether this can encompass “uncanny” or “supernatural” experiences appropriately.

The ‘Uncanny Landscapes’ panel addresses the context of the uncanny as experienced through people’s embodied engagements with landscape. It acknowledges recent shifts in approaches to landscape in social and cultural sciences – from objectifying approaches to landscape as representation or as a base upon which humans live and act, towards recognition of an unfolding, “more-than-human” environment that we are part of. It broaches questions about how “uncanny” experiences or phenomena in (or of) the landscape introduces new questions and challenges our existing methodological, analytic and theoretical tools. We address the potential of recognising the landscape as ‘subject’, raising questions about its capacity to generate the uncanny. You can read the full panel abstract here.


My paper abstract

Perception, the environment and the uncanny: Sensing the woodlands with a psychic medium who has impaired vision

This paper presents ethnography exploring the sensuous perception of English woodlands for a psychic medium named Amanda, who has congenitally impaired vision. This case study is part of an ethnography investigating the sensory perception and experience of the woodlands for walkers who have impaired vision, in the South Downs, England (2012-2014). I propose that the uncanny experiences Amanda described as a psychic medium and that I experienced in her company provides opportunities to reflect on anthropological conceptions of the environment, and the methodological, analytic and theoretical tools available for investigating uncanny experiences in natural environments. Walks through the woodlands with Amanda were characterised by uncanny experiences. I recount some of these uncanny experiences, describing her embodied and sensuous engagement with the woodlands as a psychic medium. I propose that these accounts of uncanny experiences within and of the environment contributes to theoretical (and therefore both methodological and analytic) reformulations of the environment beyond that of an objective back drop to human activities and extends to what Abram referred to as a ‘more-than-human-world’. This ethnography describes an environment sedimented with feeling tones of past activities that are sensed as “energies”, with which one can interact and alter. Thus, the environment is identified as processual, imbued “energetically” with, and altered by, human activities. Yet, there is also a sense of agency or subjectivity of the environment, which Amanda recognised as changes in the weather, and the feel, sounds and motions of the environment. Suggesting that the environment embodies these “energies” with some kind of agency. I consider how anthropological approaches to the environment have principally been concerned with the human perceiver and the environment as affording perceptual experience (following Gibson 1979), identifying the human-centric dynamic implicit in this. Reflecting on the anthropological opportunities and limitations for investigating the environment and uncanny experiences, I open questions for ways forth. This paper is situated in a sensuous anthropology of the environment and explores sensory perception through embodied methodologies of apprenticeship


Keywords: Sensuous experience, uncanny, embodied methodologies, vision impairment, environment, extrasensory perception.

If you are interested in where this panel takes us, please keep an eye on my forthcoming blogs.


Unearthing the senses in our experience of woodlands


This blog post originally appeared on the Woodland Trust News and Blog.

Have you ever stood in a woodland and closed your eyes, even for a few moments? Could you hear the rummaging of the squirrel, smell the familiar pungency of the damp musk that follows the rainfall, or feel the movement of the wind as it danced through the trees?

I have often found myself watching the woodlands, those beautiful, radiant colours that turn and change with the moods of the seasons. Tracing the contours of the twisting limbs which rise towards the sky to finally burst with offshoots of green. But there is so much more to the woodlands than what is seen. So often the beauty of the woodland is a scene to behold with the eyes alone.

The presence of trees

My research has explored how woodlands are perceived and experienced by people who have impaired vision. I walked one-to-one as their sighted guide, wandering the woodlands of the South Downs National Park for over two years. In this time I learned how people perceived and engaged with woodlands through senses other than sight.

Something that really struck me in this research was how so many of my companions described trees to have a “presence”. Approached as giant, “wise” anthropomorphic beings and acknowledged to have lived for as many or more years than you and I put together. As we arched our necks back and extended our arms to explore the textures of the trunk with confident hands, my companions often described how much of the tree was “out of reach”. Many times our height, the full felt presence of the tree was unknown.

Listening to trees with echolocation

As we stood beneath a tree, in the shadows of the canopy, I was often invited by my companion to listen. The breath of the wind that whistled through the tree revealed the contours and textures of the foliage high above us. The brittle rattle of beech in autumn, with leaves refusing to fall; hearing the creaking boughs of the ancient cedar, revealing its height.

But there were ways of listening to the woodland that was a mystery to me. Echolocation is an activity of listening to the way that sound echoes – how sound bounces off surfaces. Listening to this echo, the way that the woodland became more open or enclosed, thinned and thickened, was audible. The sounds of our footsteps upon the beaten path and the resound of our chattering voices bounced off the trees, revealing their presence.

When it rains, the woodland sings. Each leaf sounds a note in this symphony, and the contours of the body of trees reveals itself. Rain gives a voice to everything that it touches. No tree is out of reach with the fall of rain, and the fullness of its breadth is heard. Dripping leaves sound the heights of trees, water runs down the bark bodies to gather in small pools around exposed roots. One can listen to the expanse of the woodland all around, listening to the form of each tree that is revealed in rain.

With immense gratitude I thank all the research participants who shared their time, experience and knowledge with me – I am constantly inspired by each one of you.

Explore your own multi-sensory woodland

I share these brief accounts with you as an invitation, or inquisitive reminder, to listen to the woodlands. To place your hands on the body of the oak, as well as cast your eyes about it. I ask, what are the qualities of a tree – or an entire woodland – that are revealed when we attend with our whole bodies? I hope that you will join me in exploring this question in your own experiences with trees and woodlands.

Engage through social media here.

‘Anthropology of landscape, walking and the senses’ fieldtrip in the South Downs

This mid-April fieldtrip lived up to the ‘April Showers’ associations with constant, sodden down pours and thick curtains of mist that hid the world around us. With fourteen second year anthropology students we embarked on a two day, fourteen-mile fieldtrip across the landscapes of the South Downs National Park. Weaving our way from Falmer to Woodingdean, Castle Hill National Nature Reserve to Rodmell, winding our way along the River Ouse to eventually set foot in Lewes.

This fieldtrip was an opportunity to anthropologically explore conceptions of ‘landscape’; experientially reconsider anthropological approaches to ‘the senses’; and embody the activity of walking, which has become subject of many anthropologists as both a method and subject of study (including Ingold 2010, Lee-Vergunst and Ingold 2008, Lund 2005).

A central theme permeating this journey was the relationship between humans and the landscape, and specifically how particular ways of engaging with the landscape opportunes and characterises this relationality. We explored this through various experiential and experimental activities designed to focus participants’ attention on particular qualities of perception. This included walking without sight, attentive listening, choreographed walking postures, and phenomenological investigations of weather (drawing on the work of Ingold 2008, 2007, 2005). Questions of the boundedness of the body and the felt relationality of ‘the body’ and ‘the landscape’ emerged through this, revealing the experiential reconfigurations of the sense of embodied self and the landscape in different activities.

Students were invited to take the role of ethnographers. Drawing on a sensory ethnography outlined by Pink (2010) and ethnographic walking methodologies (including Anderson 2004 and Edensor 2010), we considered the embodied participation of the ethnographer and the forms of knowledge that this produces. Inviting experiments in the representation of experience beyond text, through images, sounds and drawing methods, we investigated methodological approaches phenomenologically. This opportuned reflection on the issues of representation inherent in studies of sensory perception and the landscape, invigorating debate of these concepts through our methodological practice.

Students are assessed through a 1500 word blog. Read submissions published online from previous years here and here. For more information about fieldtrip methodologies and content, do get in touch via the contact page. This fieldtrip was designed and facilitated by Dr Jon Mitchell and myself for the University of Sussex School of Global Studies .


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Key readings 

Anderson, J., 2004. ‘Talking whilst walking: A geographical archaeology of knowledge’, in The Royal Geographical Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 254-261.

Arnarson, A,. (ed). 2012. Landscapes Beyond Land. New York: Berghahn.

Edensor, T., 2010. ‘Walking in rhythms: place, regulation, style and the flow of experience’, in Visual Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 69-79.

Ingold, T., 2010, ‘Footprints through the weather-world: walking, breathing, knowing’, in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, S121-S139.

Ingold, T. 2008. ‘Bindings against boundaries: entanglements of life in an open world’, in Environment and planning A, Vol. 40, No. 8.

Ingold, T. 2007. ‘Earth, Sky, Wind and Weather’, in Journal of the Royal Anthroplogical Institute, S19-38.

Ingold, T. 2005. ‘The eye of the storm: visual perception and the weather’, in Visual Studies, 20:22, pp.97-104.

Lee-Vergunst, J. and Ingold, T. 2008. Ways of Walking: Ethnography and Practice on Foot. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Lund, K. 2005. ‘Seeing in motion and the touching eye: walking over Scotland’s mountains’, in Etnofoor 181, pp. 27-42.

Matless, D. 1998. Landscape and Englishness. London: Reaktion Books.

Pink, S. 2010. Doing Sensory Ethnography. London: Sage.


Riding the Artic Highway Norway to Sweden

As we arrived in Sweden we could feel the aurora approaching – the light tipping from dusk to dark is a long, aching stretch of time this far north. When the time came and the night beckoned us, we drove into the darkness to follow the curve of the mountain.

Clustered in the car we watched the first strands of the aurora blaze, followed by wispy strokes of lucid green, dragged across rippling stars over a black blanket of sky. Smudges deepened, light crackled in a ziggy star dust dance, shattering shards of tangy greens as sharp as limes. Stars prickled in that black sea of green curling serpents. The north gods flashing fire crackers from ancient fists. White frost biting. The taste of cold hollow in the mouth. A huge artic hare stared into the headlights with eyes as wide as Alice’s, the curtains of the day drawing to a theatrical close.

A land where earth turns to lake, liminal to the eye with the illusions of white solidity, perceivable only in its flat polished lines. The liminality of land and waters evoke the Norfolk broad of my homeland – alien and foreign to this frozen, white and chiselled land.

EASA Biennial Conference 2016: Doing ethnography through the body

I am very pleased to be presenting my paper ‘“Blind people need to teach sighted people how to listen”: ethnography through the body in an anthropology of sensory perception’ at European Association of Social Anthropologists 14th EASA Biennial Conference, ‘Anthropological legacies and human futures’, 20-23 July 2016, Milan, Italy. This is part of the panel ‘Doing ethnography through the body’, convened by Lorenzo Ferrarini (University of Manchester) and Nicola Scaldaferri (University of Milano).


Paper abstract:
Ethnographic investigation of the perception of people who have impaired vision reveals both the applications and limitations of an ethnography through the body in attempts to comprehend the lifeworlds of others. I present my ethnographic fieldwork that explores the perception of the environment for vision impaired walkers in the activity of recreational walking in the South Downs, Sussex, England. Through a case study methodology of walking with eight people as their sighted guide over the course of two years (2012-2014), I embarked on an ethnography through the body in which I became apprentice in their activities of perception. These were activities in which walkers were consciously engaged, including seeing, “seeing in the mind’s eye”, listening, feeling, and techniques of walking. I describe how I became an apprentice in learning to echolocate, using this example to recount how this method opportuned shared experiences and references points that deepened the study. However, fully sighted myself, this was fundamentally limited as I could not experience the sensory perceptual activities to the depth of their abilities. Through this example I consider the implications, advances and limitations of ethnography through the body, whilst proposing this method as fundamental to studies of an anthropology of perception. This work is situated within an anthropology of skill, which articulated by Ingold (2000) has been followed by a generation of anthropologists studying perceptual enskillments and practices, largely through methodologies of apprenticeship (including Downey 2002, 2005; Grasseni 2007; Gunn 2007; Lund 2005; Willerslev 2007).

The full list of panel presenters and abstracts can be read here.



Downey, G. 2005. ‘Seeing with a ”sideways glance”: visuomotor ”knowing” and the plasticity of perception’, in Harris, M. (ed.), Ways of Knowing: New Approaches in the Anthropology of Experience and Learning. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Downey, G. 2002. ‘Listening to capoeira: Phenomenology, embodiment, and the materiality of music’, in Ethnomusicology, pp. 487-509.

Grasseni, C., 2009. (Ed.), Skilled Visions: Between Apprenticeship and Standards. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Gunn, W. 2007.’Learning within the workplaces of artists, anthropologists and architects: Making stories for drawings and writings, in Grasseni, C.,  (Ed.), Skilled visions: Between apprenticeship and standards. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Chapter five.

Lund, K. 2005. ‘Seeing in motion and the touching eye: walking over Scotland’s mountains’, in Etnofoor, 181, pp. 27-42.

Willerslev, R. 2007. ‘“To have the world at a distance”: reconsidering the significance of vision for social anthropology’, in Grasseni, C., (Ed.), Skilled Visions: Between Apprenticeship and Standards. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Chapter one.



























Uncanny Landscapes – inviting submissions

Photograph portraying a dark landscapes of trees

I am very pleased to be coordinating a workshop titled ‘Uncanny Landscapes’ with Dr Jon Mitchell at the conference ‘Wild or domesticated – Uncanny in historical and contemporary perspectives to mind‘ 20-22 September 2016, at The House of Science and Letters in Helsinki, Finland. We are now inviting submissions to present as part of the workshop.


Uncany Landscapes Workshop Abstract

This workshop explores the context of the uncanny as experienced through people’s embodied engagements with landscape. The understanding of landscape across the social and cultural sciences has shifted in recent years, away from the ‘objectifying’ vision of landscape as representation, or as a base upon which humans live and act. In its place has emerged a new concern with the materiality of landscape, with landscape as a context through which people live and move, and landscape as an agent or actant . This workshop picks up on this concern with landscape as ‘subject’ to raise questions about its capacity to generate the uncanny.

Across times and landscapes, people have reported uncanny experiences within, and of, landscape. This panel asks, do landscapes have inherent qualities that we experience as uncanny or is this uncanniness a product of our perception of the landscape? What are the theoretical and methodological implications of this question? Further, are these experiences brought about by what we might recognise as the landscape’s inherent “wildness”, or through the process of our dwelling in it? This panel asks whether we can understand landscapes as characterised by certain energies, memories, or affects, which are experienced as uncanny, as people move through them. What are the limits of an approach to landscape that pushes our research towards that which Abram (1997) referred to as a ‘more than human’ world?

We are interested in contributions which explore examples of uncanniness in particular landscapes, or particular environments. We invite case studies of how experiences of the uncanny are evoked or triggered and how these differ across cultural, social and spatial contexts. What kind of methodologies can we use to investigate the uncanny and what analytical tools do we need? How might the theoretical turn to affect be useful in understanding uncanny landscapes? How does one capture or (re)present the uncanny in scholarship and what are the implications of this?

Please send inquiries to Dr Jon Mitchell –

Visit the conference website here.



Abram, David, 1997, The Spell of the Sensuous: perception and language in a More-Than-Human World (Vintage).


Symposium: Landscape, Language and the Sublime

Official Landscape, Language and the Sublime image - a landscape painting

‘Landscape, Language and the Sublime’ is a a symposium and creative gathering that held 29-30 June 2016 in at Dartington Hall & Sharpham House, Devon, England. This two-day symposium draws together artists and thinkers from a wide range of disciplines to explore ways in which landscape – and the ways we represent it – connects deeply to our lives and underpins our relationship to the world.

This promises to be a engaging event, with opportunity for interdisciplinary dialogue, explorations of lived experience and creative collaborations. As part of this, I am looking forward to facilitating a participatory walk through the woodlands in which I invite participants to join me in three activities that are designed opportune critical reflection and representation on their own sensory experience individually and as part of a group. Following the walk I will share my ethnographic research conducted with walkers who have impaired vision (2012-2015) through my presentation ‘A world within reach: a sensorial anthropology of unseen landscapes and the experience of impaired vision’, referring back to our experiences during the walk.

A full programme in now available on the symposium website, here. If you cannot make the event but are interested to exchange ideas along the topics, do get in touch through he contact page.





Sound, auditory perception, and listening


Adam.pngIn November last year my chapter ‘Walking through the woodlands: Learning to listen with companions who have impaired vision’ was published in  The Auditory Culture Reader, an edited book by Michael Bull and Les Back, published by Bloomsbury. This chapter was the opportunity for me to contribute to an anthropology of sound through account of how we experience sound – listening.

Anthropological accounts of sound have focused largely on sound, the concept of ‘soundscape’ and recordings (1). ‘Soundscape’ is a concept coined by composer Murray Schafer to refer to any acoustic field of study, from musical score to the sounds of the countryside. Following Schaffer, Anthropologists have described the sounds of an environment and attributed cultural significances. However, these accounts have rarely accounted for how people actually listen within the environment.

Meanwhile, cross-disciplinary scholarship of auditory perception has focused on describing hearing as a sensory capacity. This has involved characterising hearing in terms of attributes, for example that it is a “distance sense”, and describing experiences of listening (2). The role of the environment in affording these qualities of experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, accounts of auditory perception often risk becoming abstract and generalised.

I propose that by focusing on experiences of listening, rather than ‘sound’ or the capacity of hearing, we might overcome these issues. Further, the multi-sensorial nature of the perception of sound is revealed. The ways in which people feel, see or even taste sounds. This takes us to the listening subject. How do individuals develop ways of listening in particular activities and environments? We all have a sense of how listening underwater compares to listening during a conversation with a friend on a blustery walk. Listening skills are contextually variable.

In the chapter I offer frameworks for approaching an investigation of listening, principally through a concept that I refer to as sensorial emplacement. Through my ethnography of listening activities practiced by walkers who have impaired vision while walking in the South Downs (East Sussex, UK), I demonstrate the relevance of this concept and explore what this case study might offer to anthropological and cross-disciplinary investigations of sound and  auditory perception. To access the chapter please see the Auditory Culture Reader available here.



(1) For examples see Feld and Brenneis 2004; Samuels et al 2010; c.f. Kelman 2010.

(2) Including Carter 2004; Chion 2012; Idhe 2012



Carter, P. 2004. ‘Ambiguous traces, mishearing and auditory space’, in Erlman, V. (ed.), Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity. Oxford: Berg.

Chion, M. 2012. ‘The Three Listening Modes’, in Sterne, J. (ed.), The Sound Studies Reader. London: Routledge.

Feld, S. and D. Brenneis. 2004. ‘Doing Anthropology in Sound’, in American Ethnologist, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 461-474.

Idhe, D. 2012. ‘The Auditory Dimension’, in Sterne, J. (ed.) The Sound Studies Reader. New York: Routledge.

Kelman, A. 2010. ‘Rethinking Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key Term in Soundstudies’, in Senses and Society, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 212-234.

Samuels, D., L. Meintjes, A. Ochoa, and T. Porcello. 2010. ‘Soundscapes: Toward a Sounded Anthropology’, in Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, pp. 329-345.

Schafer, R. M. 1994 [1977]. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, VT: Destiny.

Photograph of the Seven Sisters, South Downs






Why blog?

Photograph of the tree canopy in Ko Lanta, with sunlight shining through I am perched on a shady veranda in Ko Lanta, looking out onto thick fans of pointed green leaves that reveal their iridescence in the morning sun. The soft breeze breathes through the trees and as its whisperings louden, smatterings of those small pointed leaves descend to the earth below. It is from here that I write my first blog! So I am going to the heart of the matter and address why I am blogging and what I will be blogging about.

I have decided to write a blog to share in a more personal tone the developments of my research and facilitation practice. My websites and publications do not reveal the progressions, evolution and shortcomings of ideas and methods in a way that a blog can. This is an opportunity to share and connect with others, attempting to mutually inspire and offer supportive critique. I therefore encourage you to please comment and email me regarding the blog posts that follow.

I will be blogging about my research (published and yet published), pointing to interesting concepts and ideas, describing my ethnography and assessing forms of research methodology and representation. I also intend to share practices and methods that I have found useful in my Higher Education tutoring and mentoring. I will share insights and synopses from relevant events that I attend related to my research and practice. Finally, I hope to share my musings and wonderings with nature as an expression of my sensuous ethnography of the environment.

Feedback and suggestions are warmly welcomed, thank you for reading!

** All of the views and information presented in this blog are my own and do not represent institutions and organisations with which I am affiliated **

Photograph from the terrace in Ko Lanta, picturing trees and the veranda